A newly released psychological study shows that some students are exhibiting symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder following the 2016 election.

The study revealed that of 769 students at Arizona State University studying psychology in January and February 2017, 25 percent of them reported experiencing “clinically significant” levels of stress after completing a psychological assessment known as the the Impact of Event Scale.

The assessment, which had been adjusted to take into account the 2016 election, indicated that students’ average stress score was similar to those of witnesses of a mass shooting seven months after the incident.

“What we were interested in seeing was, did the election for some people constitute a traumatic experience?” lead researcher Melissa Hagan, an assistant professor of psychology at San Francisco State University, said in a statement. “And we found that it did for 25 percent of young adults.”

“The scale is used to gauge the extent to which individuals have been impacted by an event in such a way that it might lead to diagnosable post-traumatic stress disorder,” Hagan added.

The sample included students from a range of racial and ethnic backgrounds, religions, social classes, and political views. The study showed that black and nonwhite Hispanic students reported higher stress levels than their white counterparts. Additionally, the study revealed that women and Democrats were more likely to be impacted by the election than their male and Republican peers.

Hagan attributed the stress to the surprise surrounding President Trump’s election and also the language used to describe race and identity leading up to the election.

“There was a lot of discourse around race, identity, and what makes a valuable American. I think that really heightened stress for a lot of people,” Hagan said.

The study was released Monday by the Journal of American College Health.